Preconditions for the emergency water and sanitation kits
For optimal development of the concepts and designs, it is necessary to have full insight in the required characteristics and the technical possibilities of kits to be used in emergency situations.
The designs of the toilets have to be standardized around a flexible sanitation platform, i.e. a multifunctional slab for a latrine or toilet, which can be adjusted on-the-spot depending on local and temporary needs. Existing solutions and knowledge will be used to develop a toilet suitable for challenging situations e.g. emergencies and reconstruction. Defined requirements are lightweight and easy to transport. The use of of textile materials for the cladding is being foreseen to fulfill these requirements.
An additional requirement is that the units can be used for a longer period of time and local models can be manufactured and taken up in the development phase.
The solutions for water supply and treatment should be low tech, low cost. Solutions should be suited for different scales of users: household level (ca. 5 people), small community level (ca. 200 people), large community level (ca. 2000 people), and village level (ca. 10.000 people). Some options that will be investigated:
- Rapid manual drilling kits (two types: jetting kit, sludge kit)
- Container-based water treatment kit
With the above characteristics in mind a further user assessment will be carried out, determining the main needs, concept requirements and feasibility and potential of successful introduction of the technology.
This normally includes:
- easy to transport;
- lightweight, cheap;
- easy to operate, also by unskilled people;
- can be used in emergency and in development for post-emergency;
- good quality;
- productive in outputs;
- no external facilities;
- spare parts or support is necessary for operation.
Input will be collected in collaboration and consultation with emergency experts for understanding the needs and necessary properties for sustainable and resilient design of the different prototypes for different stages of the disaster and different users.
The outcome of this inquiry will be a report of the user research, describing the feasibility of a successful uptake of the proposed products and/or alternative product proposals that were seen as an added value by the relief experts, to be used in the design stage